Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) is one of the leading causes of ischemic strokes, with obvious differences among different races; 30% to 50% of Asian stroke patients suffer from intracranial atherosclerosis. The incidence of intracranial atherosclerosis is 46.6% in Chinese patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Patients suffering from ICAS have more severe symptoms, longer hospitalization, and a higher risk of recurrent strokes, with the recurrence rate positively related to the degree of stenosis .
Current ICAS treatments include medical therapy, endovascular intervention and surgery . Endovascular intervention includes angioplasty and stent placement. Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty, is a minimally invasive procedure in which a balloon is used to dilate the narrowed portion of the blood vessel to restore the original shape and restore blood flow. The benefit of angioplasty is that no implant is needed.
 Chin J Stroke, 2018,13(6):594-604